Primordial Clusters, From Galaxies to Grapevines

Hubble primordial clusters courtesy NASA

In January, 2012 NASA researchers made a very important discovery. The furthest protocluster of galaxies ever seen. Thirteen billion light years from Earth, scientists, with the help of a little guy named Hubble, saw a cluster of five galaxies just beginning to form. They referred to the galaxies as primordial clusters and predicted that they [...]

Zen and the Art of Pruning

Felco shears

It’s late morning in the last week of February. I can feel the morning sun just beginning to penetrate the fog — and my sweater. I’m standing in front of a grape vine in a small vineyard just east of the town of Napa. The vine is in what we like to call dormancy, even [...]

Pruning Old-Vine Sauvignon Blanc


Pruning old-vine sauvignon blanc vines can be a dizzying experience. The above pictured vines are in a valley floor vineyard in Napa.